Bonusje

Bonusje · @Bonusje

3rd Oct 2014 from TwitLonger

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KHAZARS BANKS WAR AND BEANS











http://outofthisworldx.wordpress.com/2014/09/29/what-the-red-dragon-family-is-doing-to-help-humanity/comment-page-1/#comment-5860
rrf on October 1, 2014 at 7:00 am said:

http://outofthisworldx.wordpress.com/2014/09/29/what-the-red-dragon-family-is-doing-to-help-humanity/

BRICS? rotchild !

red dragon red rot rotchild ! child of the red dragon china…dragon dagon dogon dogan erdogan

Chinese empire and their networks of banking nobils governments every political party and system political agenda and taxoffices and countless terror and plundercells

China was run over by djengzkhan 1000 years ago. Djengizkhan Dij Engi es khan Enki´s Priest! Enki Anki Anc GOD one of Noah´s Sons Enki and Videl of whom they made kanker ká Anc er cancer and Videl they made dá evil (evi eve eva evo)devil and GOD´s Works destroyed by the faraos of the regime of nubis anc tor ma
https://twitter.com/MailOnline/status/517167552846639104
@MailOnline the standard charlie chaplin poor brilliant instant billionaire baby story? And no whitewashstation number 10000…X with out of
West for decades stolen countless trillions through centralbankers globalisation and aipac nobils setting up cells w their
offsprings in it like We have a epidemic of instant baby multibillionaires past 25 years out of thin air with no background like
also all our politicians and presidents as usual? Strongly campaigned by west media so by centralbanking? That they do only for
own side regime of nubis anc tor ma with World for ++20 centuries as their commonwealths and Slave markets

http://beforeitsnews.com/power-elite/2014/09/princess-diana-may-well-have-been-right-about-the-royal-family-relatives-of-count-dracula-2446784.html

Mymy
Look at the Wall including the Coastline http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wall_of_China#mediaviewer/File:Map_of_the_Great_Wall_of_China.jpg
Posted by Mymy
The wall including coastline is similar to the starconstellation. And the dragon looks toward the West ie rest of the continent …. as enemy or prey … all activity say We are prey for centuries now aswell as all banking and depraved plundereconomies came from china. They the chinese empire also distributed all nobils aka kingdoms in all Nations as managing occupationforces in their empire Earth! Even nowadays our politics nobils eucommisions finance banking is loaded with these asians eurasians…and We were/are dragged for more than 8000 years already away as slaves and whores including all Our Fruits of Work and Prosperities staying Poor and Slave forever under their rule!
Notice: Your comment has been accepted.
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Sep 10, 2014, 11:27 am

Also tor(thor) tur (tur-key) tour (tour de franche tou-areg )tu-d-or … tour is an old 8th century name of rotchild from when they stil were slaugtering at srilanka



http://outofthisworldx.wordpress.com/2014/09/29/what-the-red-dragon-family-is-doing-to-help-humanity/comment-page-1/#comment-5944
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&keywords=tur&commit=search

A more recent suggestion is that tur may come from Proto-Baltic *tur, from the zero ... The meaning in Latvian would have been changed to “there” under the...

It might be posible tur comes from ta-or et-tur or "ur .. the titel like the n ero of the romans what ment the ruler ceasar(tsjar ) or numero uno.tour to ur. tudor to-d-ur

tur noun: tur; plural noun: turs a wild goat native to the Caucasian mountains.
Tūrān (Persian توران), literally meaning "the land of the Tur", is a region in Central Asia. ... The Avesta contains the names of various tribal groups who lived in ...
You know the tur-key from Comment above?
Then also I-ran is Not far!
And khazars >
Qajars > kazars? The Qajar rulers were members of the Karagöz "Black-Eye" sept of the Qajars http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qajar_dynasty & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turan

About king dynasty and chinese empire http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1sc36ce?new_post=true
yatsenyuk and sun yat sen(1905) and stalin and Ukrain http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1sbgtib?new_post=true
10,000 BC Val Camonica and the deluge http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1scd5j7?new_post=true
nobils aipac centralbanking owe US every Cent http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1sbiucm?new_post=true
THE CACOA BEAN AND GOD http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1sc55jb?new_post=true



http://israeliteidentity.com/schiff.htm
http://israeliteidentity.com/jacobschiff.jpg
jacobschiff.jpg (15347 bytes)
JACOB SCHIFF
bullet THE ILLUMINATI
bullet An "Israeli" spy.
bullet Cousin of George Bush [actually George Scherf].
bullet Grand son married to Al Gore's daughter.
bullet Wikipedia fails to mention he funded Lenin, and his meeting with the Japanese emperor.

JACOB SCHIFF FUNDS JAPAN & RUSSIA
Korean General Jong Sik Park notes that Schiff funded Japan in its war on Russia. What he didn't note is that Schiff also funded Lenin and Trotsky in their bloody overthrow of Christians in Russia.
horizontal rule
http://israeliteidentity.com/jacobschiffjapan.htm
ourjourneytojapan.jpg (35584 bytes)
THE BRITANNICA STORY

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=67826&tocid=0

Schiff, Jacob H(enry) Encyclop�dia Britannica Article

born , Jan. 10, 1847, Frankfurt am Main died Sept. 25, 1920, New York City

American financier and philanthropist. As head of the investment banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb, and Company he became one of the leading railroad bankers in the United States, playing a pivotal role in the reorganization of several transcontinental lines around the turn of the 20th century.

Schiff was educated in Germany and emigrated to the United States in 1865, settling in New York and becoming a U.S. citizen in 1870. In 1875 he married the daughter of Solomon Loeb, then head of Kuhn, Loeb, and Company, and joined the firm promptly thereafter. Schiff took charge of the company in 1885 upon Loeb's death.

In 1897 Schiff attained considerable prestige in banking circles when he provided the financial backing that enabled railroad magnate Edward H. Harriman to purchase control of the bankrupt Union Pacific Railroad. Later he was a major figure in the protracted but ultimately inconclusive struggle for control of the Northern Pacific, backing Harriman against James J. Hill and his banker, J.P. Morgan. The struggle brought about the stock market panic of 1901, and the warring factions agreed to a compromise, banding together to form the Northern Securities Company. The legality of the new firm was challenged, however, by President Theodore Roosevelt under the anti-trust laws, and the Supreme Court ordered the company dissolved in 1904. Schiff's banking firm also arranged numerous other transactions involving major railroads throughout the country, most notably the Pennsylvania Railroad. Through Kuhn, Loeb, and Company he played a central role in securing $200,000,000 in loans for Japan in the United States in 1904 during the Russo-Japanese War, for which he was subsequently decorated by the emperor of Japan.

In his later years Schiff increasingly turned his attention to charity. He was said to have contributed to nearly every Jewish and many nonsectarian charities in New York, as well as to Harvard and Cornell universities and the American Red Cross.

horizontal rule

THE REAL STORY
http://israeliteidentity.com/imperialinivteschiff.jpg
imperialinivteschiff.jpg (22546 bytes)

During this visit to Japan, Jacob Schiff met with with Takahashi at Japan Jung Ang Bank who he allegedly loaned one billion pounds at an interest rate of 6% in order to fight the Russo-Japanese War.

http://www.apfn.org/apfn/kgore.htm

KARENNA GORE WEDS ANDREW SCHIFF
Excerpted from
http://teaminfinity.com/~ralph/gore/

Vice President Al Gore's Jr.'s daughter Karenna Gore, was recently married
to Andrew Schiff. Andrew Schiff is a descendant of JACOB SCHIFF.

Jacob Schiff was the Jewish New York City banker and traitor to America
who financed the communist revolution in Russia in 1917.

Jacob Schiff gave $20 Million Dollars in Gold (worth Five Hundred
Million, $500,000,000.00, in 1999 dollars) to LEVI BRAUNSTEIN, also known as
Trotsky, and Vladimir Ilich Blanc Ulanyoff, also known as Lenin.

They used this money to turn Russia into a terrifying communist
slave state. The communist revolution resulted in a bloody holocaust of over
100 MILLION DEAD White men and Women which no one seems to want to
remember or talk about.

Hollywood has never made one movie about this Christian Holocaust. Why? If
you want to know more about the history of the communist take
over or Russian and the millions who were slaughtered, I urge you to
purchase Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's book THE GULAG ARCHIPELAGO.

Vice President Al Gore Jr. is the son of former United States
Senator Al Gore Sr, whose major benefactor was Armand Heimer [aka Hammer],
who in turn was the son of Dr. Julius Heimer [aka Hammer], founder of the
American Communist Party. See article below for more information on the Red
Communist sympathizer Armand Hammer.

To this day Al Gore Jr. presents the "prestigious" HAMMER award
for Government Efficiency.

See http://TeamInfinity.com/~ralph/gore for details on Gore's
strong Communist background and relationships with Chernomyrdin and
Gore's family's ties with Hammer and Lenin, and even Stalin.

WAKE UP PEOPLE !!!!!!!!!!!!

====================================================================

The life of Jacob Schiff (1847–1920), banker, financier, and leader of the American Jewish community from 1880 to 1920, is in many ways the quintessential story of an immigrant’s success in America. Born in Frankfurt in 1847, Schiff worked in several financial firms in Germany and the US before accepting a position at the New York banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Company in 1875 and settling for good in America.

Part of a wealthy and powerful German Jewish circle that included the Warburgs and Rothschilds, Schiff played a central role in shaping American and European Jewish history. From his base on Wall Street, he was the foremost Jewish leader in what became known as the “Schiff era,” grappling with all major issues and problems of the day, including the plight of Russian Jews under the czar, American and international anti-Semitism, care of needy Jewish immigrants, and the rise of Zionism. Based on a broad range of primary sources, Naomi W. Cohen’s study emphasizes the role Schiff played as the preeminent leader of American Jewry at the turn of the century. http://www.dartmouth.edu/acad-inst/upne/f99_jacsch.html
Jacob Henry Schiff
(1844-1920)
http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/biography/schiff.html
TRAITOR McCain jewn McCain ASSASSIN of JFK, Patton, many other Whites killed 264 MILLION Christians in WWII killed 64 million Christians in Russia left 350 firemen behind to die in WTC holocaust denier extraordinaire--denying the Armenian holocaust millions dead in the Middle East tens of millions of dead Christians LOST $1.2 TRILLION in Pentagon spearheaded torture & sodomy of all non-jews millions dead in Iraq 42 dead, mass murderer Goldman LOVED by jews serial killer of 13 Christians the REAL terrorists--not a single one is an Arab serial killers are all jews framed Christians for anti-semitism, got caught legally insane debarred lawyer CENSORED free speech mother of all fnazis, certified mentally ill 10,000 Whites DEAD from one jew LIE moser HATED by jews: he followed the law f.ck Jesus--from a "news" person!! 1000 fold the child of perdition
Modified Monday, July 13, 2009 Copyright @ 2007 by Fathers' Manifesto & Christian Party



http://www.apfn.org/apfn/kgore.htm
KARENNA GORE WEDS ANDREW SCHIFF



KARENNA GORE WEDS ANDREW SCHIFF
Excerpted from
http://web.archive.org/web/20050311072031/http://teaminfinity.com/~ralph/gore/ site down

Vice President Al Gore's Jr.'s daughter Karenna Gore, was recently married
to Andrew Schiff. Andrew Schiff is a descendant of JACOB SCHIFF.

Jacob Schiff was the Jewish New York City banker and traitor to America
who financed the communist revolution in Russia in 1917.

Jacob Schiff gave $20 Million Dollars in Gold (worth Five Hundred
Million, $500,000,000.00, in 1999 dollars) to LEVI BRAUNSTEIN, also known as
Trotsky, and Vladimir Ilich Blanc Ulanyoff, also known as Lenin.

They used this money to turn Russia into a terrifying communist
slave state. The communist revolution resulted in a bloody holocaust of over
100 MILLION DEAD White men and Women which no one seems to want to
remember or talk about.

Hollywood has never made one movie about this Christian Holocaust. Why? If
you want to know more about the history of the communist take
over or Russian and the millions who were slaughtered, I urge you to
purchase Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's book THE GULAG ARCHIPELAGO.

Vice President Al Gore Jr. is the son of former United States
Senator Al Gore Sr, whose major benefactor was Armand Heimer [aka Hammer],
who in turn was the son of Dr. Julius Heimer [aka Hammer], founder of the
American Communist Party. See article below for more information on the Red
Communist sympathizer Armand Hammer.

To this day Al Gore Jr. presents the "prestigious" HAMMER award
for Government Efficiency.

See http://web.archive.org/web/20050311072031/http://teaminfinity.com/~ralph/gore/ site down

for details on Gore's
strong Communist background and relationships with Chernomyrdin and
Gore's family's ties with Hammer and Lenin, and even Stalin.

WAKE UP PEOPLE !!!!!!!!!!!!

====================================================================

The life of Jacob Schiff (1847–1920), banker, financier, and leader of the American Jewish community from 1880 to 1920, is in many ways the quintessential story of an immigrant’s success in America. Born in Frankfurt in 1847, Schiff worked in several financial firms in Germany and the US before accepting a position at the New York banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Company in 1875 and settling for good in America.

Part of a wealthy and powerful German Jewish circle that included the Warburgs and Rothschilds, Schiff played a central role in shaping American and European Jewish history. From his base on Wall Street, he was the foremost Jewish leader in what became known as the “Schiff era,” grappling with all major issues and problems of the day, including the plight of Russian Jews under the czar, American and international anti-Semitism, care of needy Jewish immigrants, and the rise of Zionism. Based on a broad range of primary sources, Naomi W. Cohen’s study emphasizes the role Schiff played as the preeminent leader of American Jewry at the turn of the century. University Press of New England | Jacob H. Schiff




Jacob Henry Schiff

(1844-1920)

http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/biography/schiff.html


=====================================================================

The 13 Illuminati Bloodlines -
This expose's Bursh, Gore & Clinton!
http://www.plausiblefuture.com/illuminati/bloodlines.html

The 13 Illuminati Bloodlines - Video
This expose's Bursh, Gore & Clinton!

Fritz Springmeier at Prophesy Club





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http://web.archive.org/web/20020319180159/www.dartmouth.edu/~upne/f99_jacsch.html

Jacob H. Schiff
A Study in American Jewish Leadership
Naomi W. Cohen Autumn Leaves Logo
University Press of New England

“Modern American Jews generally believe that until the period after World War II American Jewry was afraid to exert political power. Jacob H. Schiff . . . is a useful corrective to this mistaken idea . . . [A] well-written and well-researched book.”—New York Times Book Review
Jacob H. Schiff CoverThe first full-scale biography of a major Jewish leader and financier.

The life of Jacob Schiff (1847–1920), banker, financier, and leader of the American Jewish community from 1880 to 1920, is in many ways the quintessential story of an immigrant’s success in America. Born in Frankfurt in 1847, Schiff worked in several financial firms in Germany and the US before accepting a position at the New York banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Company in 1875 and settling for good in America.

Part of a wealthy and powerful German Jewish circle that included the Warburgs and Rothschilds, Schiff played a central role in shaping American and European Jewish history. From his base on Wall Street, he was the foremost Jewish leader in what became known as the “Schiff era,” grappling with all major issues and problems of the day, including the plight of Russian Jews under the czar, American and international anti-Semitism, care of needy Jewish immigrants, and the rise of Zionism. Based on a broad range of primary sources, Naomi W. Cohen’s study emphasizes the role Schiff played as the preeminent leader of American Jewry at the turn of the century.



“[An] absorbing new study [by] a distinguished chronicler of the Jewish experience in America . . . [Cohen] has resisted the temptation to play either psychiatrist or muckrucker . . . a model of historical scholarship.”—Commentary
“Gives the reader a nuanced portrait of a man who, although opinionated and imperious, learned both from his subordinates and from his opponents . . . this solid study takes a rightful place in the edifice of studies of German Jewish leadership.”—American Jewish History

“Cohen shows how many of the Jewish organizations we take for granted today were planned, directed, and largely funded by the multimillionaire investment banker. It is impossible to understand the shaping of American Jewry in this period without reference to Schiff’s involvement in everything that concerned the community . . . Aside from his accomplishments, the remarkable thing about Schiff’s leadership is that basic attitudes about Jewish responsibility for other Jews, at home and around the world, took root in America through his example.”—Reform Judaism

“Cohen’s work is meticulously researched, and she adroitly places her subject squarely within the contexts of American and Jewish history. Even students of 19th-century business or entrepreneurial history will enjoy and benefit from it.”—Jeffrey S. Gurock, Yeshiva University

Winner of several American Jewish book awards, NAOMI W. COHEN’s books include Jews in Christian America (1992) and The Year After the Riots (1988). She lives in Jerusalem.
$35.00, cloth, ISBN 0-87451-948-9

Brandeis Series in American Jewish History, Culture, and Life

Brandeis University Press / University Press of New England
Published in conjunction with the
Jewish Theological Seminary of America and
The American Jewish Committee

320 pp. 6 x 9"
Jewish Studies / Biography




http://israeliteidentity.com/gore.htm
Date: Thu, 30 Nov 2000 23:12:24 -0500
From: Dave dkuehne@erols.com
Subject: Gore's cash cow: Armand Hammer's Occidental Petroleum
Ever wonder where the Gore family got their millions?
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Vice President Al Gore's daughter Karenna Gore,
was recently married to Andrew Schiff. Andrew Schiff is
a descendant of JACOB SCHIFF. Jacob Schiff was the
Jewish New York City banker and traitor to America who
financed the communist revolution in Russia in 1917.
Jacob Schiff gave $20 Million Dollars in Gold (worth
Five Hundred Million, $500,000,000.00, in 1999 dollars)
to LEVI BRAUNSTEIN, also known as Trotsky, and Vladimir
Ilich Blanc Ulanyoff, also known as Lenin.
They used this money to turn Russia into a terrifying
satanic anti-Christian communist slave state. The
communist revolution resulted in a bloody holocaust of
over 100 MILLION DEAD CHRISTIANS which no one seems to
want to remember or talk about.
Hollywood has never made one movie about this Christian
Holocaust. Why? If you want to know more about the
history of the communist take over of Russia and the
millions who were slaughtered, I urge you to purchase
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's book THE GULAG ARCHIPELAGO.
Vice President Al Gore Jr. is the son of former United
States Senator Al Gore Sr, whose major benefactor was
Armand Heimer [aka Hammer], who in turn was the son of
Dr. Julius Heimer [aka Hammer], founder of the American
Communist Party. See article below for more information
on the Red Communist sympathizer Armand Hammer.
To this day Al Gore Jr. presents the "prestigious"
HAMMER award for Government Efficiency.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
AL GORE THEME: "IF I HAD A HAMMER"
----------------------------------
by F.R. Duplantier
If Al Gore Jr. ever becomes President, he'll have to
answer some embarrassing questions about the source of
his family's wealth. "One of the minor mysteries of
American politics has been the source of wealth for the
family of Vice President Albert Gore Jr.," observes
Joseph Goulden of Accuracy in Media. "When Gore's
father was first elected to the House of
Representatives in the late 1930s," Goulden continues,
"he was an impecunious Tennessee school teacher who
eked out extra dollars by playing fiddle at church
weddings. But later, as a United States Senator, he
lived in the plush Fairfax Hotel on Embassy Row in
Washington, and sent his son, Al Jr., to the pricey St.
Albans School, the haunt of kids from Social Register
families."
In a recent issue of the Washington Inquirer, Goulden
summarizes the contents of a new book called Dossier,
written by investigative reporter Edward Jay Epstein,
which "shows that the senior Gore had a silent partner
who for several decades insured that his pockets
remained comfortably filled. He was Armand Hammer, the
multi-millionaire businessman and oil promoter who
apparently collected art and politicians with equal
zeal." Goulden notes that Al Gore Sr. was "Hammer's
designated door-opener in official Washington." The
handsome compensation that Gore Sr. received for his
services culminated in a half-a-million-dollars-a-year
position with Armand Hammer's oil company, Occidental
Petroleum. Al Gore Jr. picked up where his father left
off and "put the family's Senate seat at Hammer's
service."
Goulden describes Armand Hammer as "one of the odder,
more odious characters of American business and
politics, 'famous' chiefly because he was rich enough
to promote his mammoth ego." He notes that Hammer's
carefully and expensively crafted public persona was
"that of a renegade oilman who made billions from
Libyan oil, chummed around with politicians up to White
House level, and adorned acres of galleries with
paintings, some priceless, some fakes. Hammer's lawyers
bedeviled honest journalists who tried to write
otherwise."
Hammer's powerful influence on Al Gore Sr. and Jr.
would have been bad enough had he been nothing more
than an unscrupulous businessman. Like his father
Julius, however, he was a lifelong Communist and a
friend of the Soviet Union. "Some scattered hints that
Hammer's ties with the USSR went beyond business
friendship have surfaced over the years," says Goulden.
Documents discovered in Soviet archives, however, leave
no doubt that Hammer was "a man who bribed and cheated
his way to great wealth -- and who started with Soviet
gold."
Edward Jay Epstein's new book, Dossier, makes a
compelling case that both Al Gore Sr. and Al Gore Jr.
were the willing partners of a very powerful and very
wealthy man, Armand Hammer, who was not loyal to the
United States of America. A truly independent press
would have exposed these connections decades ago, long
before Al Gore Sr. and Jr. rose to their prestigious
and influential positions.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Jewish NYC banker Jacob Schiff financed the communist
revolution giving $20 Million to Lenin & Trotsky.
This story was confirmed by John Schiff, Grandson of
Jacob Schiff in an interview with reporter Charlie
Knickerbocker and was published in Hearst Newspapers in
1949. The Rothschilds, the Warburgs and other
International bankers were the founders of the
Tri-lateral Commission, the CFR, The Bilderberger
conferences and The United Nations. These international
bankers have also financed not only Lenin and Trotsky
but also Stalin. See the web site below for more
information on this topic.
http://www.united-bluff.com/pow.html
To contact Information on Denmark write to:
Information on Denmark
Postboks 82
DK-8100 Aarhus C
Denmark
E-mail to: eviginfo@aarhus.mail.telia.com
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
AL GORE: IN HIS OWN WORDS
Lying Al: "During my service in the United States
Congress, I took the initiative in creating the
Internet." (Al Gore, CNN's Late Edition, March 9, 1999)
Know it all Al: "I believe our civilization must be
considered in some basic way dysfunctional." (Al Gore,
Earth in the Balance, 1993, p. 230)
Bill's favorite Al: "... does a great disservice to a
man I believe will be regarded as one of our greatest
presidents." (Al Gore, on the House Impeachment vote
against Bill Clinton, December 19, 1998, Washington
Post)
Fast learner Al: "I'm very familiar with the importance
of dairy farming in Wisconsin. I've spent the night on
a dairy farm here in Wisconsin. If I'm entrusted with
the presidency, you'll have someone who is very
familiar with what the Wisconsin dairy industry is all
about." (The Washington Post, June 14, 2000)
Zoology ignorant Al: "A zebra does not change its
spots." Attacking President George Bush in 1992. (The
Toronto Sun, 11/19/95)
Latin ignorant Al: "We can build a collective civic
space large enough for all our separate identities,
that we can be e pluribus unum -- out of one, many."
Except, "E Pluribus Unum" is the motto on the Great
Seal of the United States of America, and means, "out
of many, one." (January 1994. From a Milwaukee speech
to the Institute of World Affairs as quoted in
Investor's Business Daily, October 25, 1996.)
Bible Studies ignorant Al: "Speaking from my own
religious tradition in this Christmas season, 2,000
years ago a homeless woman gave birth to a homeless
child in a manger because the inn was full." (Press
Conference at HUD, 12/22/97; George Will column, Sunday
May 17 1998)
Active campaigner Al: "I certainly learned a great deal
from 3,000 town hall meetings across my home state of
Tennessee over a 16-year period" in Congress, Gore told
NPR's Bob Edwards. Except, that's 187 town hall
meetings per year -- one every other day for 16 years.
Pretending to be honorable Al: "My first pledge will be
to restore integrity to the White House. And I'll fire
anyone who has lied to the American people or the
United States Congress." (Al Gore, in a February 2,
1988 presidential debate)
Tobacco seller Al: "Throughout most of my life, I
raised tobacco. I want you to know that with my own
hands, all of my life, I put it in the plant beds and
transferred it. I've hoed it. I've dug in it. I've
sprayed it, I've chopped it, I've shredded it, spiked
it, put it in the barn and stripped it and sold it.
(Newsday, 2/26/88)
Blind and stupid Al: "I didn't realize I was in a
Buddhist temple."
Or, lying to the FBI Al: According to notes of a 1998
interview, he drank a lot of iced tea during meetings
about that Buddhist temple fund-raiser, which "could
have necessitated a restroom break" and he didn't hear
it was a fund-raiser. (New York Times, 3/11/00)
Delusions of grandeur Al: "I was the author of that
proposal. I wrote that. ... That is something for which
I have been the principal proponent for a long time."
(Time Magazine November 1, 1999, on the Earned Income
Tax Credit. That became law in 1975, while Al was a
newspaper reporter).
The prestidigitator Al: "I am not asking you to read my
lips. I'm asking you to read my heart! And watch my
feet! And watch the work of my hands!" (To an NAACP
meeting, per CBS July 12, 2000)
Totally confused Al: "It's not just about more money.
It's about higher standards, accountability - new
ideas. But we can't do it without new resources. I will
invest far more in our schools -- in the long-run, a
second- class education always costs more than a
first-class education." (Speech to the Democratic
National Convention Aug. 18, 2000)
Compassionate Al: "If I was the parent of a child who
went to an inner-city school that was failing, I might
be for vouchers, too." (Boston Globe editorial by
George F. Will, Aug. 31, 2000)
NEA controlled Al: "And I will not go along with any
plan that would drain taxpayer money away from our
public schools and give it to private schools in the
form of vouchers." (Speech to the Democratic National
Convention Aug. 18, 2000)
Do as I say, not as I do Al: "Right now, the science
does not show me, or the experts whose judgment I
trust, that it is the proper medication for pain and
that there are not better alternatives available in
every situation," Gore told kids about marijuana at a
grade school visit in a low-income neighborhood near
downtown Los Angeles. (Ceci Connolly, Washington Post,
May 12, 2000)
Big government socialist Al: "I support the elimination
of this don't ask-don't tell policy. I helped to pass
the toughest new gun control measures in a generation.
I believe that we ought to have total license ID's for
the purchase of new handguns. I think we ought to ban
assault weapons and Saturday night specials and junk
guns. I also am committed to the principle of high
quality affordable health care for all. And I don't
really care what kind of label people apply to those
positions and views." (Democratic Debate in Durham, NH
Jan 5, 2000)


Candice Lightner

TRAITOR McCain

jewn McCain

ASSASSIN of JFK, Patton, many other Whites

killed 264 MILLION Christians in WWII

killed 64 million Christians in Russia

left 350 firemen behind to die in WTC

holocaust denier extraordinaire--denying the Armenian holocaust

millions dead in the Middle East

tens of millions of dead Christians

LOST $1.2 TRILLION in Pentagon
spearheaded torture & sodomy of all non-jews
millions dead in Iraq

42 dead, mass murderer Goldman LOVED by jews

serial killer of 13 Christians

the REAL terrorists--not a single one is an Arab

serial killers are all jews

framed Christians for anti-semitism, got caught

legally insane debarred lawyer CENSORED free speech

mother of all fnazis, certified mentally ill

10,000 Whites DEAD from one jew LIE

moser HATED by jews: he followed the law

f.ck Jesus--from a "news" person!!

1000 fold the child of perdition
Modified Tuesday, November 02, 2010

Copyright @ 2010 by Fathers' Manifesto & Christian Party




http://israeliteidentity.com/jewschina.htm
http://www.kashrus.org/asian/china.html
Members of the satanic elites >> "" Li clan, came to Shanghai at the behest of the Shanghai Society. They were joined in a later visit by six other members of the Kaifeng community, who all expressed eagerness for financial support to rebuild the synagogue that once stood near South Teaching Scripture Lane.
But shortly after the turn of the century, pogroms in Russia and the resulting Jewish emigration diverted the needed funds and attention away from Kaifeng, and a synagogue for the Kaifeng Jews was no longer considered a priority for the Shanghai Jewish community, when faced with life-and-death Jewish crises elsewhere.
The elder Li remained in Shanghai until his death in 1903 ""
Very very possibly the li clan was wrecking the jew societies in China into poverty and with that usable for emigrations into plunder and wars in Germany Russia and Europe to come -
See also sun yat sen the chinese stalin 1905 who very probably also setup eucommision nato united nations and seem family of yat sen yuk the stalin of Ukrain -
- yatsenyuk and sun yat sen(1905) and stalin and Ukrain - http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1sbgtib?new_post=true
- About king dynasty and chinese empire - http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1sc36ce?new_post=true

Some nowadays members of the chinese li banking clans are li kah singh Worlds biggest herointrader with compagnies and chinese restaurants allover the World and ruud lubbers a European politican and berlusconi president of Italia and Dirupo president of Belgium and dipiro nobils already known in roman time as roman elites and the goldman bankers and the chinese li brothers who lead the last plundercampaign through Russia Europe USA for decades since war through centralbanking azerbeidjan(formerly known as kazaria one of the many many out/tradeposts of chinese empire through the millenia like now eucommision lawmaking democracy religions israel media is) and israel and china and globalisation.

See more below >

"many [jews] came away feeling that these [Chinese jews] were frauds-after all, they neither observe Jewish holidays and traditions anymore, nor do they speak or read Hebrew. And to top it off, they gave the standard line of the Chinese Government about Israeli aggression. "

Well, the standard line about Israeli aggression is understood not just by the Chinese government, but by 151 of 153 nations and 3,000 NGO's at the UN Conference in Durban who condemned "Israel" as:

bullet Racist.
bullet Apartheid.
bullet Terrorist.


The Jews of China



A glimmer of nostalgia can be detected in the eyes of 66year-old Shi Zhongyu (pronounced Sh'r Jongyu) as he recalls Passover rituals in Kaifeng of 1928. Then a seven year-old boy, Shi watched the substitution for the traditional rooster's blood-colored paint mixed with water-dabbed over the doorpost of his home, using a Chinese writing brush. This festival, he recalls, was combined with features of the Chinese New Year. Another custom, celebrated separately, would take place in May, when Shi's mother would cook cakes containing no yeast.
"When the Hans [ethnic Chinese celebrate New Year's, they have some Buddhist idols which they worship, " Shi explains. "We didn't have those statues in our family. We only had the memorial tablets for our ancestors, in front of which we would place food offerings of mutton rather than the pork used by other Chinese, to show our respect for our Jewish ancestry. "
The story of China's Jews is supposed to have ended. But in 1987 there are still people in Kaifeng who claim Jewish ancestry and recall Jewish holidays and rituals- over a century after the synagogue near South Teaching Scripture Lane was destroyed for the last time. Over 150 years after the last Chinese rabbi in Kaifeng conducted services, taking with him at his death the last real knowledge of Hebrew and Bible, Jewish memory persists.
If you ask Chinese Jews how many of their ranks remain in the 1980's, estimates range from 100 to 300, although it is not clear if they mean individuals or only male heads of households, since Chinese Jews trace their descent, as is the Chinese custom. This, of course, raises problems for other Jews who define Jewishness matrilineally, according to halakha (Jewish law); by this criteria, Chinese Jews are not "really" Jewish, and haven't been so for hundreds of years.
In fact, the Reform and Reconstructionist movements, in adopting patrilineal descent in the 1980's, legitimated a practice that Chinese Jews trace back at least as far as the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). A Ming emperor conferred upon the Jews seven surnames by which they are identifiable to this day: Ai, Lao, Jin, Li, Shi, Zhang and Zhao. Although other Chinese may have one of these surnames, Chinese Jews and their descendants will have only one of these seven names. Two names are of particular interest-Shi and Jin-meaning Stone and Gold respectively, common surnames today among Western Jews.
A Jewish community as such no longer exists in Kaifeng. Indeed, most of those of Jewish descent do not even know each other. "In Kaifeng, we Jews have virtually no contact with each other, " one reported. "Only if someone says, 'My name is Li. I've heard my grandfather say I'm also a Jewish descendant, ' do we know there are some links between us. " But among individuals a strong sense of ethnic identity remains, and they are eager to share this and learn from foreign Jews who travel to Kaifeng as part of tours to China.

To Chinese Jews boast one of the most amazing histories in the annals of the Diaspora. Archeological evidence points to a Jewish presence in China as early as the eighth century, the Jews having arrived, most likely, from Persia along the Silk Road.
Arab and European travelers, including Marco Polo in the thirteenth century, spoke of meeting Jews or hearing about them during their travels in the Middle Kingdom, as China was then called. Polo records that Kublai Khan himself celebrated the festivals of Muslims, Christians and Jews alike, bespeaking the existence of Jews in sufficient numbers in China to warrant attention by its rulers.
It was not until the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci was called upon by Ai Tian, a Kaifeng Jew, in 1605, however, that the existence of this exotic community came to the attention of the West. Ai had heard that there were China Westerners who steadfastly maintained their belief E in one God, but who were not Muslims. What else could they be, thought Ai having never heard of Christianity but Jews?
The Jesuits who visited Kaifeng during the eighteenth century were intent on befriending Chinese Jews and studying their holy writings. They were motivated by a prevailing belief in Europe that the rabbis of the Talmudic era had excised from the Torah certain passages which spoke I in specific terms of the coming of Jesus. If only they could find the Torah of the Chinese Jews, who knew nothing of Christianity, they reasoned, they would be able to locate these deleted passages. They hoped to bring back an unexpurgated Torah-proving to Western Jews that their rabbis had deceived them-and they envisioned mass conversion to Christianity as a result.
Needless to say, the Jesuits did not find what they were looking for. They did, however, write letters to Beijing and to Rome, which have become a part of the Vatican archives. In these letters, they described the daily life and religious observances of the Chinese Jews, noting the great pride and care with which they maintained their synagogue. Jean Domenge, a Jesuit who visited the Chinese Jews in 1722, drew sketches of the interior and exterior of the synagogue, illustrating the degree of assimilation that had occurred among Chinese Jews by this time.
Set in a typical Chinese courtyard structure, with many pavilions dedicated to ancestors and illustrious men of Jewish history, the synagogue (called the Temple of Purity and Truth, a name common to mosques as well) had a separate hall for the ritual slaughter of animals. Inside on a front table were incense sticks burned in honor of the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
On the Sabbath, the Jews read from the Torah, only after it was placed on a special "chair of Moses. " Above this chair loomed a great tablet with gold Chinese letters proclaiming, "Long live the great Qing [dynasty] Emperor" a requirement for Muslim, Confucian, Buddhist and Taoist temples as well until the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911. The Chinese Jews, however, added Hebrew characters above the proclamation, which the non-Jews could not understand: This was the Shema, the Jewish statement of faith, and it was put above the Chinese characters so that the Jews and God alone knew that He was the highest of all.
The Jesuits sent back rubbings of the two steles, or stone monuments, which had been erected in the courtyard of the synagogue compound. The earliest inscription on one of the steles, dating to 1489, tells of the history and religious beliefs of the Jews. The stele points to the year 1421, when the emperor conferred upon An Ch'eng, a Jewish physician, the surname Zhao, as the turning point for the acceptance of the Jews into Chinese society. From that time on, Chinese Jews would prove able to pass the civil service exam and thus be accepted into the mainstream Confucian society far out of proportion to their small numbers. Local gazetteers from the sixteenth through the twentieth centuries attest to this.

The 1489 inscription also notes that the first synagogue was erected in 1163, after the Jews were ordered by the emperor to "keep and follow the customs of your forefathers and settle at Bian liang [Kaifeng]. " The stele itself was erected to commemorate the reconstruction of the synagogue after a devastating flood in 1461-one of several which would destroy the synagogue and many Kaifeng inhabitants over the next few centuries.

An inscription on the back of the 1489 stone, dated 1512, suggests the existence of established Jewish communities in other parts of China. It records for posterity the donation of a Torah scroll by a Mr. Gold (Jin) of Hangzhou to the Kaifeng kehilla. This inscription also attempts to draw parallels between the basic tenets of Confucianism and Judaism, an effort which needs little help, since both emphasize the moral basis for conducting one's daily affairs. The notion of tzedaka (charity), common to Confucianism and Judaism, is duly noted.
With a ban on proselytizing and the banishment of missionaries by the Yong Zheng Emperor in 1724, contact with the Jews came to a halt and would not resume for over a hundred years. During the intervening century, assimilation took its toll, as a letter from a Kaifeng Jew to the West, written in the mid nineteenth century attests: "Morning and night, with tears in our eyes and with offerings of incenses do we implore that our religion may again flourish. We have everywhere sought about, but could find none who understood the letter of the Great Country [Hebrew], and this has occasioned us deep sorrow. "

Lack of a rabbi and the dilapidated state of the synagogue were prime reasons for the diminishing confidence of the Jewish community in their future. Although circumcision and observance of the dietary laws were still reported, the poverty rampant among the Jews, like that of their Chinese neighbors, led some to attempt to sell parts of the synagogue building and even some of their manuscripts. Scrolls of the Law and other Hebrew manuscripts were in the end sold to Protestant missionaries during the nineteenth century. Many are now in the Klau Library of the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati.

Some time between 1850 and 1866, the synagogue was destroyed for the last time. But not until 1900, with the establishment of the Shanghai Society for the Rescue of the Chinese Jews, was a concerted effort made by Western Jews to help their brethren in Kaifeng. By then it was practically too late. Two Jews, a father and son of the Li clan, came to Shanghai at the behest of the Shanghai Society. They were joined in a later visit by six other members of the Kaifeng community, who all expressed eagerness for financial support to rebuild the synagogue that once stood near South Teaching Scripture Lane.
But shortly after the turn of the century, pogroms in Russia and the resulting Jewish emigration diverted the needed funds and attention away from Kaifeng, and a synagogue for the Kaifeng Jews was no longer considered a priority for the Shanghai Jewish community, when faced with life-and-death Jewish crises elsewhere.
The elder Li remained in Shanghai until his death in 1903 and was buried in the Jewish cemetery there. His son was raised by the family of D.E.J. Abraham, and when he was circumcised, he was given the name Shmuel. Shmuel lived in Shanghai for nearly 50 years, returning after the Second World War to Kaifeng, where he died. Shmuel's son, who grew up in Shanghai, was sent to Kaifeng after the Communists came to power in 1949.
Shmuel's son, Li Rongxin (pronounced Rungsheen), lives in Kaifeng today. At 77, he is healthy and fu11 of stories of Jewish life in Shanghai-of the synagogue on Museum Road near where the Li family lived, and of the foreign Jews, mostly from England, with whom he had contact-and of Jewish practice in Kaifeng.
The one small room Li calls home is filled with correspondence from Western Jews he has met over the years since Kaifeng was opened to tourists. He has accumulated something of a Judaica library, as they have given him copies of Haggadas and Hebrew primers. Nevertheless, his knowledge of Jewish law and custom seems tinged with bubbe meiseXs passed down among Chinese Jews- such as the "fact" that Jews observe the Sabbath in part by fasting.

(Interestingly, the 1489 stele does state that Jews are to fast four times a month.)
While in Kaifeng two summers ago, I met again three Jewish descendants who had been brought before the American Jewish Congress groups which I led on tours of China in 1983. At the time, we were allowed to spend only a little over half an hour interviewing those chosen to speak to us. Shi Zhongyu, Shi Yulian and Zhao Pingyu are the only Chinese Jews brought before groups of Jewish tourists. All eloquent spokesmen, they nevertheless left visitors disappointed, as the Westerners tried to understand the strong ties which somehow bound them to us, as well as the differences which seemed at times insurmountable. Indeed, many came away feeling that these people were frauds-after all, they neither observe Jewish holidays and traditions anymore, nor do they speak or read Hebrew. And to top it off, they gave the standard line of the Chinese Government about Israeli aggression.
How close do these Chinese Jews feel to Jews around the world? Many feel a special bond for our common ancestry and heritage, but the political world in which they live precludes a deeper understanding of Jewish ties to the Land of Israel. Nevertheless, pride in their past is very real, as can be seen by their listing their children as "Youtai" (Jewish) on all certificates of registry, next to the space allotted for nationality, where they once might have written "Han" (ethnic Chinese).
Zhao Pingyu, a retired tax collector in his mid-60's and a member of the Planning Committee of the Tourist Bureau of Kaifeng, displayed one of these certificates. Perhaps the most enterprising of all the Chinese Jews, Zhao is preparing a mini-museum or, as he calls it, a "commemorative hall, " which will recount the many contributions and scholarly successes attained over the centuries by his ancestors. To this end, he has built a model of the old synagogue as his father and grandfather told him it looked. It is along the lines of the model of the Kaifeng synagogue found in Be it Hatefutzot (the Diaspora Museum) in Tel Aviv, only Zhao has added two stone lions in the front, which stood there throughout the centuries.
"In the course of researching the history of the Zhao clan, one must also understand things which pertain to the original synagogue, " says Zhao. "At least this will enable me to pass this knowledge on to my own descendants so that they will understand their history. During my research of the synagogue, I discovered that the last restoration was undertaken by my family. "
Given that Judaism has been traced patrilineally in Kaifeng for centuries, Zhao finds himself in a peculiar position: He is one of the few Chinese Jewish descendants with an extensive knowledge of his people's history and only daughters-five of them-to pass it on to. Like Tevye, Zhao has had to accommodate to changing times. He has, therefore, decreed that any children which his daughters have should be registered as "Youtai, " even if their fathers are not of Jewish descent. And they have all agreed. In fact, one has joined her father in a small-scale enterprise of making Chinese Jewish yarmulkas to be sold to Jewish tourists-which will, they hope, bring in much needed funds for the museum project.
Although he has amassed a formidable Judaica collection from Jewish tourists over the years, Zhao can neither read the books nor make use of them, as they are all in English or Hebrew. However, he does appreciate having them and hopes that one of his daughters, whom he would like to send to the United States to study Judaism, will someday return to Kaifeng and explain them to her father.
The Zhaos still live on South Teaching Scripture Lane, named after the religion of the Jews who resided there because of its close proximity to the synagogue. "[The synagogue] was destroyed in the flood of the Yellow River, " says Zhao. "After the flood [in the mid nineteenth century], many Jews fled to other parts of the country. They went north, south, east and west, scattered in all directions. After they left, they managed to make a living where they were and never bothered to return. So some of them [now] don't even know they are Jewish. At that time we also left, without any choice. But we couldn't make a living, so we came back. After this, we had no house, no way to make a living, so we just set up a house next to the original synagogue temporarily and slowly made our lives again. That's how we came to remain on this street. "
Few Kaifeng Jewish descendants display the knowledge of their ancestry that Zhao Pingyu possesses. When shown a Star of David, for example, Ai Dianyuan did not recognize it as a Jewish symbol. Nevertheless, Ai displayed an attitude typical of most Jewish descendants in Kaifeng today, as distinct from those brought before tourist groups to recount their family's histories; that is, they know they are of Jewish descent only because they were told so by their fathers, and they have a strong desire to pass this one bit of information on to their children. For some reason, it is still important to them to do so.
Ai Fengmian, a former construction worker now in his 70's, had one of the most interesting stories. In 1952 Ai was picked by his neighborhood committee to go to Beijing to represent Chinese Jews as one of the national minorities in a ceremony held by the then three-year-old government of the People's Republic of China. Ai met and shook hands with Mao Tse-tung, Chou En-Lai and Deng Xiaoping. One might conclude from this episode that shortly after the establishment of the PRC, Jews were close to being declared a national minority.
China has 55 national minorities, who are declared such on the basis of common language, traditions, customs and geographic area. The Muslims now constitute the second largest minority in China, after the Zhuang, and they are able to retain their study of Arabic and religious observance in mosques. The Jews, however, long ago lost their knowledge of Hebrew and, with the destruction of the synagogue, a communal meeting place for worship. Man) Jews were, in fact, swallowed up by Islam over the years, since it was the religion whose customs and practices were most like those of Judaism.
One such person is Jin Xiaojing, a sociologist at the National Minorities Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing. Jin, whose surname means "Gold, " only discovered her Jewish roots in 1980. Jin Xiaojing's daughter, Qu Yinan, a Beijing journalist, is now studying at the University of Judaism in Los Angeles.
A deep desire to recover his heritage was best exhibited by Shi Zhongyu, whose childhood memories of celebrating Passover and seeing brass Stars of David wrapped in red silk hidden in a medicine chest are still vivid. "The yarmulkas I saw in my family were not made up of four sections like this [given him by a tourist], but rather were composed of six pieces, " he recalls. "They were dark blue with black trim, and there was Hebrew writing embroidered on it. They used yellow thread to embroider it with. I never understood any of the Hebrew writing.... These belonged to the previous generation. It was always kept in the closet.... As I remember now, the number of the edges probably has something to do with the Sabbath. The story goes that on the first day God created such and such, the second day God created such and such, and so on, finishing creation on the sixth day. So because of this, the yarmulka has six or seven parts. I heard this from my mother. It's really regrettable we no longer have these things. "

Shi is working with Wang Yisha, former curator of the Kaifeng Municipal Museum, who probably knows more contemporary Chinese Jewish descendants than anyone else, to reconstruct the genealogies of the Kaifeng Jews, in particular of the Shi clan. To this end, they are eager to get hold of the Chinese-Hebrew Memorial Book of the Dead, on which Sino-Judaic scholar Donald Daniel Leslie has done considerable research. The Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati has agreed to donate two microfiches of this work to Kaifeng-one to the Municipal Museum, which is planning a Judaica wing that will house the steles, and another directly to Wang Yisha. However, efforts to expedite the sending of the microfiches have run into some bureaucratic snags, which have temporarily set back those who would delve into their past in Kaifeng.

The China International Travel Service (CITS), the official Chinese travel agency, has been attempting to establish greater tourist contact between Western Jews and Kaifeng. However, tourists have been discouraged by the many inconveniences of traveling to Kaifeng (still a long way from the amenities afforded by the more glamorous cities of Shanghai and Beijing) and the paucity of actual "things to see" relating to the history of the Chinese Jews: The site of the synagogue is now occupied by a hospital, and the two steles may be seen only with considerable haggling on the part of tour leaders with CITS officials. As a result, even the American Jewish Congress abandoned Kaifeng as a part of the itinerary of its China tour in 1986.

My own solo journey to Kaifeng in 1985 was capped by a five-hour detention by the public security police on grounds that I was collecting secret information for FBI style research and was attempting to proselytize the Chinese Jews, who don't even exist anymore-so I was told- so there should have been nothing to interest me. Speaking to people in their homes, I was informed, was illegal. Since I was on a tourist visa, I should have been visiting pagodas, not talking privately with individuals-in Chinese, no less. My interrogation was a far different experience than what happens in most other cities, in China, certainly the large ones such as Beijing and Shanghai, where contacts between foreigners and Chinese are quite the norm.

Many tourists I brought to Kaifeng in official groups have come away wondering whether the whole thing wasn't a hoax to get visitors and their money into the city. Having spoken to many of the Jewish descendants in the privacy of their homes, having heard their stories and even discussed Middle East politics, I cannot agree with that assessment. There are precious memories of Jewish life in Kaifeng which are worth recording for future generations of Chinese Jews and for Jews around the world.

To this end, the Sino-Judaic Institute was created in 1985 in Palo Alto, California, to encourage research and scholarship about the Jewish experience in China and to aid the establishment of a Judaica wing in the Kaifeng Municipal Museum.
I saw in the Chinese Jews a mixture of two of the greatest civilizations-certainly the oldest-the world has known. What I began to ask myself was not why Judaism and Jews as a community no longer live on in Kaifeng, but rather, how they could have survived in that far corner of the earth with a Jewish identity for so long.



Dr. Wendy Abraham
c/o Asian Languages Dept.
Stanford University
Stanford, CA 94305
wabraham@leland.stanford.edu
Also, if you are interested in joining the Sino-Judaic Institute, you should contact either Dr. Wendy Abraham or our President, Prof. Al Dien (also c/o Stanford University at the above address), or by e-mailing him at: aldien@leland.stanford.edu








@Min_IenM @Politie Hoe l&m ziet zu dat af gezet tegen over Feit dat politie zélf 43% van alle verkeers ongelukken veroorzaakt? https://twitter.com/Min_IenM/status/517215961082896385

hoe gemeente mag knutselen met de meest kwetsbaren http://www.z24.nl/columnisten/sandra-phlippen-hoe-gemeente-mag-knutselen-met-de-meest-kwetsbaren-499741

Fourth-Largest U.S. Oil Company Ditches ALEC Amid Climate Change Backlash http://b4in.org/b9Fz

US already spent $1bn on ISIS campaign as 45 million Americans live in poverty: http://4bitnews.com/world-at-war/us-already-spent-1bn-isis-campaign-45-million-americans-live-poverty/#sthash.UziLkWpd.dpuf … https://twitter.com/4bitNEWS/status/517194616203128832

http://theunknownmoment.blogspot.co.uk/search/label/ATLANTIS & http://theunknownmoment.blogspot.co.uk/search/label/DANNY%20WILTEN & http://tannhauserxxx.wix.com/atlantis-sky-fish & http://www.beforethey.com/

http://tannhauserxxx.wix.com/rise-of-the-dragons#!the-veil-of-isis/c33z
This same belief in the pre-existence of a far more spiritual race than the one to which we now belong can be traced back to the earliest traditions of nearly every people. In the ancient Quiche manuscript, published by Brasseur de Bourbourg--the Popol Vuh--the first men are mentioned as a race that could reason and speak, whose sight was unlimited, and who knew all things at once.


http://beforeitsnews.com/power-elite/2014/09/princess-diana-may-well-have-been-right-about-the-royal-family-relatives-of-count-dracula-2446784.html
Jackalope
From what I heard the Draco reptilians are of the high order of the lizard people. Some believe that Dracula (Draco) was one of them and thus the lust for blood. In the Garden of Eden the snake was actually not one that crawled. but one that stood up on two legs, shimmering… Nachesh When it tempted Eve God spoke that he would now crawl. God said, “And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and you will strike his heel.” Gen. 3:15. When I read her seed/offspring and satan’s seed/offspring seems to me the Reptilians are his offspring. Some believe today that the Reptilians are actually in the White House using human bodies and in news channel. Aliens, Reptilians, Demon’s are all the same. I can not confirm nor deny any of this because it’s just what I heard or read. I do believe what God stated in Genesis.
Sep 11, 2014, 9:18 pm



https://patriotcity.wordpress.com/category/the-jesuit-order-and-the-papal-knights/

GATA beschuldigt grootbanken van manipulatie goudprijs op grote schaal http://moneytalk.knack.be/geld-en-beurs/beleggen/gata-beschuldigt-grootbanken-van-manipulatie-goudprijs-op-grote-schaal/article-normal-431561.html

http://hoeiboei.blogspot.nl/2011/11/mongools-monetair-beheer.html
Mongools monetair beheer

Het was een monetaire crisis die in 1294 een eind heeft gemaakt aan het bewind van de koning van de Mongolen die zich, samen met zijn legers, meester had weten te maken van de gebieden die nu als Iran en Irak bekend staan.

Deze koning-krijgsheer, Geikhatu, was in 1291 aan de macht gekomen door op het juiste moment de juiste leden van de zijn familie te vermoorden. Geikhatu mocht zich vanaf dat moment koning (‘Khan’) noemen. Of eigenlijk ’onderkoning’, Il-Khan, want de echte koning aller Mongolen zat in Peking. Krijgsheer Geikhatu was in theorie slechts diens onderkoning.

Naar Chinees voorbeeld voerde de nieuwe onderkoning papiergeld in. Dat was een slim idee. De
bekwame regeerder had nog meer slimme ideeën. Hij verbood de bevolking edelmetaal als geld en ruilmiddel te gebruiken. De straffen op overtreding van dit verbod waren vorstelijk. De slimme economische experts van het regime meenden dat het verbod er toe zou leiden dat alle edelmetaal in handen van de heersers zou vallen. Het gevolg van de maatregel was volledig onvoorzien: alle handel viel stil. Het ontbrak nu bijna iedereen aan bijna alles.

Zoals altijd was er meer aardigs. De soldaten van het leger des konings werden met het nieuwe papiergeld betaald, en kochten daarmee hun proviand. De verkopers van dat proviand moesten uiteraard belasting betalen, dat was redelijk, voor niets gaat de zon op. Die belastingen wensten de Mongoolse heersers nu weer niet in hun eigen zelfgemaakte papiergeld te ontvangen. Dat moest in edelmetaal. Hierdoor nam het vertrouwen in het Mongoolse papiergeld toch enigszins af.

De verslagen over de chaos en ontreddering die het gevolg was van deze samenloop van slimme maatregelen doen vermoeden dat de krankzinnigheid en de schade voor de bevolking van EU-formaat geweest moeten zijn. Maar die verslagen zijn natuurlijk niet objectief, en gemaakt door vijanden van Geikhatu, althans door geletterde hovelingen van zijn vijanden.

In de algemene verwarring en misère die het resultaat is van dit scherpe monetaire beleid grijpt een zekere Ghazan de macht. Ghazan was zoon van een vorige koning, Arghun, die door Geikhatu vermoord was. Ghazan was opgevoed als Boeddhist. Als hij aan de macht komt, bekeert zich tot de godsdienst van de vrede. De bekering tot de islam van Ghazan en zijn clan is in veel opzichten een keerpunt in de geschiedenis van het Midden-Oosten.

Ghazan’s inmiddels islamitische dynastie blijft aan de macht tot 1335/1336. Daarna wordt het nog erger in Iran. Het regime van de Mongolen, die sinds 1295 moslim waren, was uiteraard voor de bevolking toch dragelijker geweest dan anarchie die er vanaf 1325 heerste. Pas tegen 1400 is de rust een beetje teruggekeerd, als de Turks-Mongoolse krijgsheer en mensenvriend Timoer Lenk, ook moslim, vanuit Centraal-Azië er in slaagt Iran en ommelanden te onderwerpen.

Een tijdgenoot van al deze prachtige Mongoolse monetaire en economische maatregelen meende dat de schade die de Mongoolse onderkoningen van Irak en Iran hebben aangericht, ‘nog in geen duizend jaar’ hersteld kon worden. De crisis had daarentegen ook een voordeel gehad: de elite van de Mongolen was tot de islam overgegaan.

Monetair wanbeheer kan kennelijk een levensvatbare maatschappij kapot maken. Maar ach, geen zorgen, dan is de islam de oplossing.
Geplaatst door hoeiboei

http://hoeiboei.blogspot.com/2011/11/mongools-monetair-beheer.html?showComment=1320397916474#c3415330378671690945 sirik4 november 2011 10:11
Even leek het er op of Jansen "the rise and fall of the state" van Prof. M. van Creveld gelezen had.

Het is in Europa al meerdere keren voorgevallen dat koningen of andere heersers via monetair beleid de zaak naar de gallemiezen hebben geholpen. Net voorde oprichting van 'bank of England"( naar nederlands model) kende men "tally" als een houten muntstuk. Zelfs in de USA werd de belastingbetaler gedwongen geen goud meer in bezit te hebben op straffe van..
Kortom ook hier kennen we de mongeaulen.
In het westen brengt men welvaart op de knieen door middel van ingrepen via Centrale banken. Ingrepen middels grootschalige marktinterventies (aandelen, obligaties, enz), of door verboden zoals verbod op "short selling", of het verdacht maken van echte onafhankelijke kredietbeoordeelaars. Centrale banken en het monopolie om geld te drukken zijn altijd nuttige instrumenten geweest om ten oorlog te kunnen gaan.

Daarmee is niet de islam het grootste probleem/bedreiging, maar de (ver)houding van de staat ten opzichte van de bevolking.

...en wachten we af wanneer de USA ( volgend jaar?) actie onderneemt tegen Iran middels bombardementen.
Het zijn de staten die oorlogen veroorzaken, niet de bevolking.

Beantwoorden

ecceuomo4 november 2011 16:10
Fiatgeld heeft nooit gewerkt, werkt niet en zal niet werken. Dat al dat ongedekte papier geaccepteerd wordt is enkel en alleen omdat overheden er een wettig betaalmiddel van hebben gemaakt. In een normale situatie zouden mensen geen papier met inkt dat niet inwisselbaar is voor enig goed accepteren, zouden banken die aan fractioneel reserve bankieren doen omvallen en zou er geen kunstmatige geldgroei zijn. Burgers worden al vele jaren stelselmatig opgelicht door de overheden (in samenwerking met de bancaire sector) en vrijwel niemand heeft het door. Het trouw stemmende kiezersvolk niet, de volgelingen van de occupy-beweging niet en de journalisten van de reguliere media niet. De overheden hebben alles onder controle en zouden de crisis die zijzelf veroorzaakt hebben zelfs kunnen gebruiken om de macht nog meer uit te breiden (uiteraard ten koste van het geld en zelfbeschikkingsrecht van de burgers.

sirik5 november 2011 09:38
In 1837 Supreme court of usa gaf note-issuing rechten vrij voor eenieder. en werd een banking for free tot in 1861.
In 1859 waren 1996 verschillende bankbiljetten in omloop uitgegeven door 1600 banken.
Voor de burgeroorlog telde us-army 28000 man. Erna ongeveer 1.000.000.
beloofd werd om in klinkende munt uit te betalen dan wel dit te doen in de toekomst.

The Legal tender act (1861) stelde dat nu enkel greenback mochten worden uitgegeven die niet inwisselbaar waren in bullion (zilver of goud).
Dat zette de drukpersen aan het werk en in 1865 was er voor niet minder dan 640.000.000 $ geproduceerd.
Nationale schuld vóór de burgeroorlog was 170 miljoen, ná afloop 2,756 miljoen.
Bij wet werd geregeld dat omwisseling van andere biljetten naar federal notes niet zonder een 10% toeslag kon.

In 1870 verwierp de supreme court het monopolie van de overheid op het drukken van geld. ( fifth amendment)

President Grant benoemde vervolgens twee nieuwe rechters en sindsdien is het federale geld het enige betaalmiddel in de usa.
De taak van de staat is een dienende niet een heersende. Anders loopt het fout af. ( met de vriendelijke groeten aan de jovd denktank).





http://www.holywar.org/jewishtr/open.htm
http://www.holywar.org/jewishtr/04usury.htm
4
USURY

From the beginning of their tenure in Europe (and elsewhere), many Jews were merchants. This provided a base as they began expanding into money lending activities, including usury. Usury is defined most simply as money lending for profit. In medieval times it was universally condemned as a heinous and immoral act by the Christian church. The act of usury was deemed a mortal sin, and its practitioner's path of greed was understood to end in eternal damnation in Hell. The idea of profiteering from someone else’s' need -- possibly desperate -- for money was believed by medieval Christianity to be the antithesis of compassion, generosity, and charity. Christ was upheld as an example of poverty, non-materialism, and abstinence. Common wisdom asserted that those who had surplus money to lend in the first place were obsessed with greed and avarice and needed no more -- certainly by usury -- for their coffers. And making money for doing absolutely nothing (except having the money available) went against Christian medieval understandings of decency, justice, honest work, and morality. In essence, usury was perceived as a crass system of exponential exploitation by which the already wealthy could get increasingly wealthier for little more than the fact of their wealth in the first place. (In the nineteenth century, notes Abram Leon, Karl Marx argued that "usury centralized money wealth, where the means of production are disjointed. It does not alter the modes of production but attaches itself to it as a parasite, and makes it miserable. It sucks blood, kills its nerve and compels production to proceed under even more disheartening conditions." [LEON, p. 150]

As George Eaton Simpson and J. Milton Yinger observed:

"The church's condemnation of usury made sense in the relatively
self-sufficient, largely barter economy in which a large proportion
of the population lived, even down to the eighteenth century. Under
those circumstances, a person borrows money only when he has
suffered some unusual loss -- long illness of the breadwinner, loss
of crops, a destructive fire. To charge interest in such a situation
is to kick a man when he is down. To the great majority of people,
this continued to be the perspective on interest-taking: it was robbery;
money was unproductive and yet one had to pay for its use."
[SIMPSON/YINGER, p. 295]

The vast gap between Christian and Jewish moral perspectives, per materialist self-aggrandizement, is evidenced everywhere in their respective traditions. In the Christian New Testament, for instance, Jesus enjoined values of humility and modesty to his followers, teaching that "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than it is for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of heaven." [LUKE 18-25] Jewish religious tradition stands in drastic opposition. The [Talmudic] Mishnah, for instance, proclaims, "Who is rich? He who enjoys his wealth." Likewise, there is no equivilant in Jewish mainstream tradition to Christian vows of poverty and material abstinence, [SHAPIRO, p. 12] as epitimized in recent times by Mother Teresa. As the Talmud says: "Poverty in the home is more painful than fifty lashes." [KOTKIN, p. 46]

"Judaism is a this-world religion," says Joshua Halberstam, "and making money is considered a natural human endeavor. Unlike Christianity, Judaism never considered poverty a virtue; the idea that the meek shall inherit the earth is a New Testament doctrine, not a Jewish one." [HALBERSTAM, p. 25] "Judaism does not consider poverty noble," says Maurice Lamm, "... The Jew prays for parnassah, a respectable income." [LAMM, p. 108] As famed sociologist Max Weber wrote, "Pharisaic [i.e., rabbinic] Judaism was also far from rejecting wealth or from thinking that it be dangerous, or that its unqualified enjoyment endangers salvation. Wealth was, indeed, considered prerequisite to certain priestly functions." [POLL, S., 1969, p. vii]

The Jews were not forbidden in medieval Europe to become usurers. Because they refused to convert en masse to the dominant religious faith and, to Christian belief, be spiritually saved, Jews were considered outsiders. Whatever its continuously decried immoral atmosphere, usury was an economic opportunity and the Jewish community gravitated to it. In historical perspective, this niche they were afforded was a great economic privilege and a springboard for Jewish economic expansion to our own day. (In the Islamic world too, where usury was religiously prohibited to Muslims, Jews again gravitated towards that generally regarded repugnant activity). Of course there were, religious and legal injunctions or not, small numbers of Christian usurers too. But Jews had a distinct advantage in that they could be completely open in their profit-making activities. "The picture of the Jew," says Jacob Katz, "waiting at home for the Gentile to come to borrow money or pay a debt is a realistic one ... [but] many Jews also had also to call at the house of the Gentile to offer their services as traders or money-lenders." [KATZ, Ex, p. 38]

Christian usurers, who were despised at least as much by their co-religionists as Jews, usually had to be more discrete in their dealings. The gravity in which all usurers were violently hated by the general European population may be measured in the following passage by Jacques Le Goff:

"The persecution and slaughter of Italian usurers, in particular in
France during the late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, were
phenomena as frequent and widespread as pogroms against the Jews,
with the one difference that the pogroms were prompted by religious
motives as well as the hatred of wealthy moneylenders of a different
faith." [LEGOFF]

"Italians and Hugenots," adds Alan Edelstein, "were expelled from France for economic reasons, and the same factors caused Germans in Novgorod to wall themselves for protection from Russian mobs." [EDELSTEIN, p. 23]

The exploitive nature of Jewish usury invariably alienated the Christian populace. The Cortes of Portugal, for instance, complained in 1361 that Jewish usury was becoming "an unbearable yoke upon the population." [LEON, p. 165] Guido Kisch, in a probable understatement, notes that "the continual complaints against Jewish moneylenders, coming from all classes of the medieval population, particularly in the 14th and 15th centuries, necessarily made the Jew an unpopular figure." [KISCH, p. 328] Usurious Jews who did no physical labor, who were segregated in their own communities, who did not serve in the local military, and who were agents of the hated aristocracy, were commonly accused of parasitism by local non-Jewish populaces. "Jewish money lending," says Salo Baron, "[was a] lucrative business ... For the most part, the accepted rate ranged between 33 and 43 per cent, although sometimes they went up to double and treble those percentages, or more ... When the European economy entered a period of deceleration in the late thirteenth century, further aggravated by recurrent famine and pestilence, such exorbitant charges, though economically doubly justified because of the increased risks, created widespread hostility." [BARON, EHoJ, p. 45] Money lending was not usually for a borrower's business expenses or expansion, but for subsistence survival. [MACDONALD, p. 263] We are talking about desperate people who often enough stood to perish from their web of increasing debt.

"It was not luxury needs," says Abram Leon, "but the direct distress which forced the peasant or the artisan to borrow from the Jewish usurer. They pawned their working tools which were often indispensable to assure their livelihood. It is easy to understand the hatred that the man of the people must have felt for the Jew in whom he saw the direct cause of his ruin ... [LEON, p. 171] In this role as petty usurers exploiting the people, [Jews] were often victims of bloody uprisings..." [LEON, p. 83] [uprisings that were] "first and foremost efforts to destroy the letters of credit which were in [Jewish] possession." [LEON, p. 171]

In 1431, for instance, armed peasants demanded that the city of Worms surrender its Jews to them, "in view of the fact that they had ruined [the peasants] and taken away their last shirt." [LEON, p. 172]

Usury was in fact considered immoral by Jews too. The great Jewish theologian, Maimonides, wrote "why is [usury] called nesek [biting]? Because he who takes it bites his fellow, causes pain to him, and eats his flesh." [MINKIN, p. 362] Usury was forbidden to Jews, as well as Christians, in the Old Testament. (The Islamic Quran also expressly states its prohibition of "interest.") But there was a qualifier. Jews conjured a double moral standard; usury upon others in their own community was prohibited, but usury upon non-Jews was acceptable. The Torah states that one cannot practice usury upon a brother, but can to a stranger. [DEUTERONOMY, 23:20] Who is a brother and who is a stranger? "Brother," in Jewish religious teachings means "Jew." "Stranger" is anyone else.

St. Ambrose (339-397), the bishop of Milan and writer whose works influenced later medieval Christian thinking, "considered lending to a stranger a legitimate hostile act against an enemy." [BARON, p. 53] St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), a well-known Christian theologian of his time, sounded an idealized, universalized Christian ethic about the Deutoronomic double standard:

"The Jews were forbidden to take usury from their brethren,
i.e., from other Jews. By this we are given to understand
that to take usury from another man is simply evil, because
we ought to treat every man as our neighbor and brother...”
[NELSON, p. 14]
"All Jewish converts [to Christianity] of early sixteenth century Germany," says R. Po-Chia Hsia, "attacked the practice of Jewish money lending." One convert, Johannes Pffeferkorn, argued that profits from usury was the main reason that Jews remained Jews, that they were reluctant to become Christians and do "honest work." Another, Anton Margaritha, argued that such "honest work by Jews would humble them." [HSIA, p. 172] (Conversely, in England, the Jewish "monopoly of usury brought them such wealth that some Christians undoubtedly went over to Judaism in order to participate in the Jewish monopoly in lending.") [LEON, p. 140, quoting BRENTANO]

A double standard ethic was endemic to traditional Jewish teachings. The Old Testament laws were for the benefit of Jews, and it always aggravated relations with their non-Jewish neighbors. The medieval Christian world held open doors to Jewish converts to the purported universality of their own faith, but most Jews opted for their own perception of themselves as an elite group -- God's special Chosen People -- despite the inevitable hazards that such a self-perception engendered from the surrounding non-Jewish communities. The old adage to avoid trouble, "When in Rome, do as the Romans do," was studiously dismissed by Jews to the extreme. They were even permitted talmudic (religiously-founded) self-governance by Christian authorities and were only called to the greater laws of the state for extraordinary transgressions. This situation provided Jews the uninhibited capacity to act within favorable, double-standard, self-aggrandizing laws created for themselves against the wider society. As Jacob Katz notes:

"The belief that Jewish law was of divine origin, whereas Gentile
law was purely a human invention, linked any evaluation with
with the most fundamental theological tenet of Judaism. The moral
conduct of the Jew towards Gentiles, if it was not to be
determined solely by expediency and prudence, could have been
influenced only by principles derived exclusively from Jewish
sources." [KATZ, Ex, p. 59]

Israeli professor Ehud Sprinzak notes traditional Jewish perspective on the surrounding Gentile "law of the land" in Eastern Europe:

"Everyone knew everybody in the [Jewish community], and there was
no need for official code or written law. The only formal law was the
Torah and its halakhic interpretation as understood by the local rabbi
... It was a basis communal conduct ... ('You help me, and I'll
you') ... The attitude towards the formal law of the land was suspicion
... One has to survive it, not respect it. The art of Jewish survival within
the ghetto included an elaborate system of using, avoiding, and
sidestepping the [Gentile] law." [SPRINZAK, Elite, p. 178]

Or, as James Yaffe puts it:

"The feeling of separation ... leads to a special Orthodox morality.
Ultimately because the moral value of every act is determined by
halakhah, by Jewish law, they develop a rather cavalier attitude
toward 'gentile' law. For example, a tiny minority of Hasidim [in
America today] engage in jewelry smuggling. In the shtetl [Jewish
Eastern European village] this was a traditional trade. Nobody looked
upon it as a crime, because nobody recognized the existence of
national borders; the only borders that mattered were those that
divided the Jewish from the gentile world." [YAFFE, J., 1968, p.
120]

The combination of insular self-governance, their languages of Hebrew and/or Yiddish, and self-imposed isolation, also inferred (and was in fact understood by Jews to be) a Jewish "sub-nationality" within the broader Christian state. This too was much resented by the indigenous European populace. It was a politically volatile situation. Each faith, the majority Christian and minority Judaic, was entrenched in its respective belief system, each implicitly hostile to the other, with the only significant intercourse between them being the world of commerce, a field in which Jews were rapidly building, despite their small numbers -- through trade and the hated usury -- a profound advantage.

In this context of mutual hostility, Jacob Katz paraphrases the sociologist Max Weber with regards to the Jewish community's "extreme" use of its moral double standard in its treatment of non-Jews, commercially or otherwise:

"[While it is a] universal phenomena... [that] members of any
cohesive social unit observe ... different moral standards among
themselves from those observed by it in relation to strangers,
[the sociologist Max Weber] was right in depicting the medieval
Jewish community as an extreme case in point..." [KATZ p. 56]

Bearing in mind that the only interaction Jews really had with Christians in this era was in the realm of commerce, this double standard -- ethically treating Jews one way, and Gentiles the other -- is again highlighted by Katz:

"No moral teaching could change the realities of religious rivalry,
social segregation, and the plurality of legal systems. All these
must have encouraged a double standard of behavior. Those who
were reluctant to be guided by the higher morality had the letter of
the law on their side." [KATZ, p. 61]

For the Jewish part, Katz's referral to "the letter of the law" is their sacred Talmud, and other Jewish teachings which "are far from forming the elements of a universalistic ethic. They took social duality for granted," [KATZ, Ex, p. 63] which is a delicate way of saying that Jewish religious teachings were commonly interpreted to sanction the exploitation of non-Jews.

It is hard to miss the intention of the Talmud, or misinterpret its noble meaning, or "pilpul" it into something other than what it is, when it says:

"Rabbi Shemeul says advantage may be taken of the mistakes of a
Gentile. He once bought a gold plate as a copper one of a Gentile for
four zouzim, and then cheated him out of one zouzim in the bargain.
Rav Cahana purchased a hundred and twenty vessels of wine from a
Gentile for a hundred zouzim, and swindled him in the payment out of
one of the hundred, and that while the Gentile assured him that he
confidently trusted his honesty. Rava once went shares with a Gentile
and bought a tree, which was cut up into logs. This done, he bade, his
servants to go pick out the largest logs, but to be sure to take no more
than the proper number, because the Gentile knew how many there
were. As Rav Ashi was walking abroad one day he saw some grapes
growing in a roadside vineyard, and sent his servant to see whom they
belonged to. 'If they belong to a Gentile,' he said, 'bring some here to
me, but if they belong to an Israelite, do not meddle with them.' The
owner, who happened to be in the vineyard, overheard the Rabbi's
order and called out, 'What? Is it lawful to rob a Gentile?' 'Oh, no,' said
the Rabbi evasively, 'a Gentile might sell, but an Israelite would not.'"
[HARRIS, p. 182, BAVA KAMA, Fol. 113, col. 2]

This is to be found in Jewish religious texts. Likewise, this:

"When an Israelite and a Gentile have a lawsuit before them, if they canst,
acquit the former according to the laws of Israel, and tell the latter such
is our laws; if they cannot get him off in accordance with Gentile law, do
so, and say to the plaintiff such is your law; but if he cannot be
acquitted according to either law, then bring forward adroit pretext and
secure his acquittal. These are the words of Rabbi Ishmael. Rabbi
Akiva says, 'No false pretext should be brought forward, because if
found out, the name of God would be blasphemed, but if there be no
fear of that, then it may be adduced.'" [HARRIS, p. 31, BAVA KAMA,
Fol. 113 col. 1]

"The economic behavior of the Jew," wrote the great sociologist Max Weber, "simply moved in the direction of the least resistance which was permitted them by [their] legalistic ethical norms. This means in practice that the acquisitive drive, which is found in varying degrees in all groups and nations, was here directed primarily to trade with strangers [i.e., non-Jews], who were usually regarded as enemies." [WEBER, p. 254]

In medieval Poland, "the limitations upon non-Jews [by Jewish law and culture] were ... stringent," notes Bernard Weinryb,

"Being outsiders in the Jewish community they were subject to
all the prescriptions applying to foreigners. Thus Jewish middlemen
and agents were forbidden to put one non-Jewish businessman in
contact with another or to bring a non-Jewish consumer into a
non-Jewish store. Many warnings were issued to such agents against
showing non-Jews 'how to do business' or divulging Jewish business
secrets to him ... Jews were forbidden to rent a room to a non-Jew ...
Another area controlled by the Jewish community was rents and
leaseholds. In time ... monopolistic tendencies increased among the
Jews ... The fact remained that the monopolistic-exclusion principles
were also an integral part of the Jewish way of life and could thus not
be regarded as a constant anti-Semitic factor directly solely against
themselves." [WEINRYB, p. 159]

In an overview of Polish history, another Jewish scholar, Eva Hoffman, notes

"that the Jews had their views of the people among whom they lived we
we cannot doubt, but their ordinary opinions, ideas, and preconceptions
are largely inaccessible to us, since almost no secular Jewish literature
is extant for the early period. We do know, however, that Jews had
their exclusionism and monopolistic practices, prohibiting rights of
residence to outsiders in their quarters, and strictly guarded certain
business practices and 'secrets' from non-Jews ... We can take it
for granted, moreover, that fierce religious disapproval traveled
both ways [between Jews and Poles] ... At the same time, unlike
other minority groups, Jews had no wish to assimilate, to take on
the coloring of the surrounding culture, to become like the other."
[HOFFMAN, E., 1997, p. 45]

Strict adherence to Jewish laws and values by even the most corrupt of Jewry was typical of the Jewish underclass of Europe's Middle Ages who found in their religious beliefs sanction for their predations on Gentiles. "Despite all their depravity," says Mordechai Breuer, "members of the Jewish robber bands lived as Jews and generally adhered to traditional Jewish lifestyles and customs. As a rule, they did not undertake any expedition on the Sabbath [Saturday] and kept the dietary laws." [BREUER, in MAYER, p. 249]

"Jewish bandits stole almost exclusively from Christians," notes Otto Ulbrichtl, "No breaking into houses of Court Jews or representatives of the Jewish community or synagogues (in contrast to the many burglarized churches) were reported." [ULBRICHT, p. 62]

Florike Egmond's historical work about organized crime in the Netherlands (1650-1800) notes the following:

"[There was] picking pockets, the theft of textiles and gold or
silver, and church robbery with its concomitant violence against
priests and clergy. None of these was the exclusive domain of
Jews, who were involved in various other subcategories of theft
and burglary as well, but in these particular offences Jews were
especially prominent ... [EGMOND, p. 108] ... Some Jewish
groups specialized in church robbery ... From 1680 to 1795
the robbery of churches and priests and clergy was the nearly
exclusive domain of Jews ... [EGMOND, p. 109] ... Jews robbed
not only Roman Catholic priests but Protestant ones too. It
looks rather as if most Christian thieves stayed away from all
churches, while Jewish thieves selected churches for more
reasons that just convenience." [EGMOND, p. 110]

In pre-Holocaust Poland and Russia, notes Yiddish expert Abraham Brumberg, Jewish thieves, pimps, and prostitutes developed a rich folklore of hundreds of songs, mostly in this tenor:

"I go into the street
I open a door
I spot a fur coat
I invite it to go with me." [LESTER, p. 36]

Such a worldview that callously preys upon surrounding Gentile society was apparently not considered to be incongruous with the fundamental tenets of Judaism. As Brumberg notes, 'Many who subscribed to these [thieving] values considered themselves God-fearing and had their own synagogues." [LESTER, p. 36] [This we shall run across again]

There is a tradition of Yiddish criminal songs in Eastern Europe:

"The two large cities of Warsaw and Odessa 'boasted' of a strong Jewish
underworld which lived by its own laws,and the songs in this category
are varied and vivid, revealing the sentiments of the criminal world in the Pale
(area of Czarist Russia where Jews were permitted to live). In many ways,
these songs are similar to those of the non-Jewish world on themes that dealt
with the life and pursuits of housebreakers, pickpocketes, hijackers,
counterfeiters, extortionists, gangsters, pimps and even murderers. These
are genuine folk songs, products of anonymous singers, actual persons who
daily evaded the police, faced the hostility of the respectable community,
quarreled and brawled among themselves, experienced the dangers and
pleasures of their 'chosen profession.'" [RUBIN, R., 1979]

In 1939 Chaim Kaplan, a German-born Jew, noted the Jewish émigrés at the Russian-Polish border where 2,000 Jews were given a monetary advance by the Soviet government for a work project in the Soviet hinterlands: "To our shame, only 800 returned to accept the work and take the journey -- the rest disappeared without a trace. They simply expressed their gratitude to the Soviet government, which had extended its protection and opened its borders to them, with trickery. There were also incidents of stealing from private people. Polish-born Jews are rather high-handed in matters of 'yours' and 'mine,' and if they don't actually steal, they 'take' ... There can be no atonement for such shameful behavior. It reflects on the character of an entire people." [KAPLAN, C., p. 90]

Jews were popularly perceived in medieval (and even up to modern Europe) as either ostentatiously wealthy parvenus or predatory small time thieves, with considerable moral overlap between them. Both groups were significant players in local economies with the Jewish upper-class and underclass often linked in economic exploitation of the non-Jewish communities around them. "From Court Jews to peddler," says Jonathan Israel, "those divergent groupings penetrated and depended on each other economically, as well as in religion and commercial life. It would be idle to deny that there was exploitation as well as collaboration and interdependence, but such exploitation existed on all levels and operated in all ways." [ULBRICHT, p. 59]

One of the privileges that Jews often sought and acquired from European aristocracies in the Middle Ages was the right to demand full payment from aggrieved owners when stolen objects found their way into Jewish hands for sale. This caused deep resentment amongst the Gentile population; it was often charged that this policy paved the way for lucrative Jewish "fencing" operations where stolen goods could regularly find their ways to Jewish shops and hiding spots in the their community. [BARON EHOJ, p. 42] These Jewish agents of receivership were called in Hebrew ba'al ha-davar, literally meaning ‘wire pullers,’ figuratively meaning "Masters of the Affair." [BREUER, p. 249]

Florike Egmond notes the same kinds of Jewish fencing operations in the eighteenth century in the Netherlands:

"Two equally salient characteristics of Jewish organized crime
[were] its near monopoly on the buying and selling of stolen goods
and the central importance of towns to all its activities ... [EGMOND,
p. 115] ... The near monopoly of Jews in the fencing business indirectly
contributed to the prominence of other Jews in organized crime ...
[EGMOND, p. 116] ... The period between about 1740 and 1765 can
be regarded as the phase of expansion of Jewish crime. After that
Jewish involvement in organized crime continued at a consistently high
level." [EGMOND, p. 119]

Although based in urban areas, Jewish bands were highly mobile and also preyed on those in the countryside. "Jews involved in organized crime in the Netherlands," adds Egmond, "were often active in retail trade ... Extensive travelling also meant numerous contacts with other Jewish peddler." [EGMOND, p. 123] Eventually, common self-protective interests brought some Jewish, Gypsy and Christian criminals together. Egmond notes, however, that "most Christians who joined Jewish bands, whether they acted as occasional assistants or as experienced members" were always considered "outsiders." [EGMOND, p. 145] In the case of one crime ring, the "Great Dutch Band," a band of mixed ethnicity, it was formed by Moyse Jacob "who played a central role in bringing together the various criminal circuits of the Dutch Republic within a more permanent organizational structure." [EGMOND, p. 148] In the Great Dutch Band's first (Brabant) "branch," two-thirds of its sixty members were Jews; in its second branch (the Meerssen Band), two-thirds of its sixty members were also Jewish; and 16 of 25 people were Jewish in the Band's third expression. In the fourth, Jews were a quarter of the group. "The first [branch]," notes Egmond, "set the pattern with respect to criminal specialization, leadership, and forms of organization. All the principal commanders had been instructed (and probably selected) by Moyse Jacob himself." They were also all Jewish. [EGMOND, p. 149]

In a volume about Polish peasant society, William Thomas and Florian Znaiecki note that

"The Jewish shopkeeper in a [Polish] peasant village is usually also
a liquor dealer without license, a banker lending money at usury,
often also a receiver of stolen goods and (near the border) a
contrabandist. The peasant needs, and fears, him, but at the same
time despises him always and hates him often. The activities of
those country shop keepers is the source of whatever anti-Semitism
there is in the peasant masses. We have seen in the documents the
methods by which the shopkeeper teaches the peasant boy smoking,
drinking, and finally stealing; the connection established in youth
lasts sometimes into maturity, almost every gang of peasant thieves
or robbers centers around some Jewish receiver's place, where the
spoils are brought and new campaigns planned. Gangs composed
exclusively of Jews are frequent in towns, rare in the country; usually
Jews manage only the commercial side of the questions, leaving robbing
or transporting of contraband to peasants." [THOMAS/ZNAIECKI, p.
1200-1201]

Jewish itinerants (perhaps 10% of the Jewish population in Germany in the Middle Ages), as well as Jewish thieves, and robbers were common in European life. Evidence of Christian criminals' linkage to the Jewish economic underworld is reflected in the fact that "some 20%" of the vernacular for illicit activity in the jargon of non-Jewish criminals contained words and terms derived from Yiddish and Hebrew. [BREUER, p. 248]

Oklahoma professor Stan Nadel notes the reason for the spreading of Yiddish criminal terms into the English language across the world:

"It seems that [the Yiddish word] gonef (sometimes gonnoff, hence the false
etymology) entered American and English slang via what is known as thieves' cant.
One of the traditional occupations for Jews in Europe and America was as
pawnbrokers. That is an occupation which ttends to bridge the border between the
criminal and business worlds. At the margin, the line between pawnbroker
and fence (handler of stolen goods) is often obscured and some Jews played
and important part in the criminalized underground of large cities ... I had
assumed [the term gonef] moved into American English from German Jewish
immigrants in New York (like [famous Jewish criminal] Mrs. Mandelbaum)
until I learned it was also present in 18th century London thieves' cant. Then
I was told by a specialist on the 18th century London underworld that Jewish
fences played a key role in linking the London underworld with markets in
Amsterdam (he says they claimed they could fence anything, including the
crown jewels), and that this is the source of Yiddish loan words in English
thieves cant." [NADEL, S., 6-18-98]

But, as we will increasingly find, it was not only the Jewish vagabonds, unscrupulous shopkeepers, or exploitive upper strata Court Jews who played the role of swindler with the Gentiles. No less an authority than Heinrich Graetz, one of the greatest Jewish historians whose History of the Jews was a pioneer work, had this to say, generally, about the Jews in Poland. It was a mainstream ethic

"to twist a phrase out of its meaning, to use all the tricks of the clever
advocate, to play upon words, and to condemn what they did not
know ... Such were the characteristics of the Polish Jew. ... Honesty
and right thinking he lost as completely as simplicity and truthfulness.
He made himself master of all the gymnastics of the Schools (of
religious interpretations) and applied them to obtain advantage over
any one less cunning than himself. He took a delight in cheating and
overreaching which gave him a sort of joy of victory. But his own
people he could not treat in this way: they were as knowing as he. It
was the non-Jew, to his loss, that felt the consequences of the
Talmudically trained mind of Polish Jew." [GRAETZ, v.10, p. 62,
82]

Israeli professor Jay Goren recalls the Jacob-Esau tradition, where Jacob, the Jewish cheater/deceiver, is heroized in Jewish tradition, noting:

"As we may recall, Jacob the tent dweller, who used his head,
outsmarted Esau, the skilled hunter, who uses his hands, and cheated
Esau out of his inheritance, Isaac's blessing. The blessing was the
birthright of Esau by virtue of his being the firstborn child. In Jewish
tradition, Jacob came to symbolize the Jews and Esau the Gentiles.
Thus, an image of contrasting roles were formed whereby the Jews
were supposed to use their heads and the Gentiles their muscles."
[GOREN, p. 135]

The Israeli author Israel Shahak in 1994 argued that Orthodox Judaism is, in its very construct, motivated by "a combination of hypocrisy and the profit motive." Even in Israel today, secular Jews look with disdain upon the Orthodox religious community for its "duplicity and venality." "It is actually true," Shahak writes, "that the Jewish religious establishment does have a strong tendency to chicanery and graft due to the corrupting influence of the Orthodox Jewish religion." [SHAHAK, p. 48] [See Jewish drug money laundering, later chapter]

The great German philosopher, Immanuel Kant, echos Graetz and Shahak in his own observations of the Jewish community:

"[The Jews], living among us, or at least the greatest number of them,
have through their usurious spirit ... received the not unfounded
reputation as deceivers ... They do not seek civil honor, but rather
wish to compensate their loss by profitably outwitting the very people
among whom they find protection ... We may suppose that their
dispersion throughout the world, with their unity in religion and
language, must not be attributed to a curse that had been afflicted
upon this people. On the contrary, the dispersion must be considered
a blessing, especially since the wealth of the Jews, if we think of them
as individuals, apparently exceeds per capita that of any other nation
at the present time. [KANT, p. 101-102]

A well-known French Jewish socialist (and later Zionist), Bernard Lazare, addressed this issue of Jewish morality in 1894:

"The moral charge of the anti-Semite [is that] the Jew is more dishonest
than the Christian; he is entirely unscrupulous, a stranger to loyalty and
candor. Is this charge well founded? It was true and is true in all those
countries where the Jew is kept outside of society; where he receives
only the traditional Talmudic education.... The Talmud and anti-Judaic
legislation [in Gentile societies] united to corrupt the Jew to his very
depths. Impelled by his teachers on the one hand, by hostile forces on
the other, by many social causes besides, to the exclusive occupation
of commerce and usury, the Jew became degraded. The pursuit of
wealth ceaselessly prosecuted, debauched him, weakened the voice of
conscience within him, taught him habits of fraud." [LAZARE, p. 164]

This ethic was of course brought by Jews, particularly from Eastern Europe, to America. As Jewish commentator James Yaffe notes: "The Lower East Side [the turn-of-the-century Jewish section of Manhattan] pushcart peddler who prided himself on his honesty wouldn't hesitate to sell damaged goods to the gentile housewife." [YAFFE, J., 1968, p. 68] Max Weber notes this quality in Jewish identity through history, referring to it as "the dualistic nature of [Judaism’s] in-group and out-group moralities." [POLL, S., 1969, p. v]

As Mary Antin, a Jewish immigrant to the United States from Russia, once observed in her autobiography, The Promised Land:

"[Jewish merchants and money lenders] preyed upon [Christians], and our
shopkeepers gave false measure. People who want to defend the Jews ought
never to deny this. Yes, I say, we cheated the Gentiles whenever we dared,
because it was the only thing to do ... Is not that the code of war? Encamped
in the midst of the enemy, we could practice no other. A Jew could hardly
exist in business unless he developed a dual conscience, which allowed him
to do to the Gentile what he would call a sin against a fellow Jew." [TRAXEL,
D., 1998, p. 29]

Many modern Jewish apologists refute such exposure and criticism of traditional Jewish double standard of morality. As we have seen, when caught in the act of deceit there are religious texts that recommend explaining it quickly somehow away. Jules Carlebach, for example, argues that a "dual morality" -- if, in his view, it ever existed -- was no big deal; he likens the Jewish medieval communities in Europe to "independent political states," saying:

"If an independent political state adopted legislation which is intended
to further the interests of its citizens, but which has no parallel
provisions in neighboring states, then it is both logical and essential
to create a dual system." [CARLEBACH, p. 224]

Jews had always closed ranks as a completely "foreign" body in mainstream Christian society. While some Jewish religious teachings certainly supported the notion that they should live in obedience with the laws of the host country they lived in, this was largely expedient and prudent for their own survival. Less supportive Jewish texts included prayers that anticipated the downfall of surrounding non-Jewish society. During Arab-Christian hostilities, for instance, Jews appealed to God to drain them both in war. They had a prayer, notes Salo Baron, "composed in the geonic period which was unheard of in any other period of Jewish history in the dispersion: 'Be it Thy will, O Lord, that the Kings should wage war on one another.'" [BARON, ASOC&REL, p. 186]

Jewish communities in Europe, as insular self-entities always searching for their own best interests, had been known to betray non-Jewish lands in which they lived. Both Hebrew and Yiddish were Jewish languages that were impenetrable to most non-Jews. (For centuries rabbinical dictate even forbade the teaching of Hebrew to Gentiles). These "secret" languages tended to heighten non-Jewish suspicions of them. The Muslim invasion of Christian Spain was aided by the Spanish Jewish community who expected better treatment under Islamic rule. The French city of Bordeaux was believed by some to have been betrayed by Jews in 848 to invading Normans; the same charge was made against Jews for the fall of the French town of (Visigothic) Arles to Catholics. Poles charged Jews with abetting invading Swedes in the 17th century. [HAGEN, p. 23] In the 12th century, Byzantine Jews aided invading Turks (Constantinople was breached with help from -- and through -- the Jewish quarter); in the 17th century Spanish and Portugese Jews intrigued with the Dutch. [MACDONALD, p. 64-65] On the other hand, in the early 1800s, when Napoleon invaded the Pale of Russia, "the pattern of German-Jewish behavior during the Napoleonic invasion was largely repeated in Russia." [SACHAR, p. 79] The Jews, in other words, did nothing, laid low, and waited to see who was victorious. "With the exception of the Jewish community of Lithuania," says Howard Sachar, "the citizens of the Pale were not obliged to commit themselves until the war was won." [SACHAR, p. 79]

The Italian ambassador to Poland, Eugenio Reale, in 1946 wrote an analysis of the "Jewish question" in Poland:

"In effect, Polish Jews together with German Jews held a monopoly
over all exports and imports of goods between Germany and Russia.
Certain branches of manufacture in Poland were also under their control,
particularly the textile industry in Lodz. It is of little wonder, then, that
the Jews often manifested their true, undeniably existing feelings of
solidarity with the Prussians. In Pomerania, during the 1848
insurrections, groups of Jews greeted the insurgents with shouts
such as: 'We do not want Poland, we are Prussians.' Almost a half
century later, during the Warsaw manifestations in favor of Polish
autonomy in the Russian sphere, the Jews took a similar position against
the demonstrators, shouting, "Why should Poland exist? Down with
Poland! Down with the white eagle [the symbol of Poland]."
[PIOTROWSKI, p. 46]

In Morocco under French rule, notes Nahum Goldmann, "the Jews were on such poor terms with the Arabs that they were nearly all pro-French -- which brought them the hatred of those who aspired to independence." In Algeria, also bucking under French colonialism, Jews "even had automatic French citizenship, unlike the non-Jews." [GOLDMANN, N., 1978, p. 48] Even in 1996, notes the American Jewish Yearbook, "Between 800 and 900 Jews were known to be living in Bosnia-Herzegovnia ... During the [civil] war, about 300 people who before the fighting had not declared themselves as Jewish joined the Jewish community, presenting written documentation such as marriage or birth certificates. Before the war, these people had declared themselves as 'Yugoslavs.' Some of them remained in Bosnia-Herzegovinia while others went to Israel." [SINGER/SELDIN, 1997, p. 378]

The Jewish Diaspora community in Europe has been formally called to task by Christian authorities a number of times in history, including two momentous occasions to find out exactly what the Jews in their midst believed and where they morally, politically, socially, and religiously stood with regards to Gentiles. One of the most important accounts of such an occasion was in France in the year 1240. A Jewish apostate named Donin, Christianized to Nicholas de Rupella, well versed in Hebrew as a Talmudic scholar, claimed to Church officials that there were many elements in the Jewish teachings that were threatening to non-Jews. A public disputation was held between Donin and Rabbi Yehiel ben Joseph of Paris and as Jeremy Cohen notes about Hebrew records of the event: "Some modern writers have labeled the Hebrew protocol [of the disputation] a prime example of literary polemic, using well-known forensic motifs to reinforce popular Jewish belief rather than actually reporting what occurred." [COHEN, J., 1982, p. 66]

Jacob Katz notes the infamous line in the Talmud that came up for public examination, stating "The best among Gentiles should be slain." One can imagine that such a directive in Jewish religious texts, whatever its complex historical context as a part of intra-Jewish argument, exposed to Church leaders in Medieval society by a Jewish apostate, was not an easy one for the rabbis to explain away. Even Katz passes on its essential content, simply alluding to "whatever its meaning may be..." [KATZ, p. 108] M. K. Harris, in his book on Talmudic literature, adds an addenda to this opinion to "kill the best of the Gentiles." "Modern editions," notes Harris, "qualify this by adding 'in time of war.'" [HARRIS, p. 191]

The intention of the Church inquiry was, of course, to squeeze out of Jewish religious texts the most self-condemnatory sounding material. Hence, some of what Katz calls the Talmud's apparent "picture of extreme hostility on the part of the Jews towards their Christian neighbors" seemed nothing less than indicting:

'You have permitted [Jews] to shed the blood of Gentiles.' 'It is
permitted to steal and plunder the Gentile's possessions and (it is
allowed) to cheat him.' 'Concerning the lost property of a Gentile,
you say that it is forbidden to return it to him.' The Gentile is
suspected by the Jew of practicing fornication, adultery, and
sodomy. The Jew is not allowed to make the Gentile any gift,
nor is he even permitted to say, "How handsome this Gentile is;'
it is permitted to you to curse and to despise idolatry'; and we
are as despised in your eyes as locusts and flies.'" [KATZ, p. 107]

The way the rabbis weaseled out of the grim possibility of extremely serious repercussions for the Jewish community was to argue that such lines -- although they truly exist in Jewish sacred texts -- applied to Gentiles of antiquity, yes, but that Christians were now an exception. This position, says Katz, was "no more than an ad hoc device to be used in the course of controversy. There is no indication in the Talmud or in the later halakhic sources that such a view was ever held, or even proposed, by an individual halakhist. In fact, evidence to the contrary exists." [KATZ, p. 110] Rabbis even tried to convince Christian interrogators that insults and degradations in the Talmud directed towards Jesus of Nazareth referred to a different Jesus because it was a common name! [POPPER, p. 10] As Rabbi Yehiel ben Joseph said in defense of the Talmudic texts that defamed Christ, "Not every Louis born in France is the king of France. Has it not happened that two men were born in the same city, had the same name, and died in the same manner? There are many such cases." [COHEN, J., 1982, p. 70] "The Jesus of the Talmud," notes scholar Jeremy Cohen, "... is mentioned as condemned to wallow eternally in boiling excrement ... When forced to admit that one talmudic passage mentioning the crimes of Jesus and his execution did indeed apply to the Christian Jesus, Yehiel still emphasized that the Talmud was not responsible for maintaining this opinion among Jews." [COHEN, J., 1982, p. 71]

The Jewish representatives also took great pains to distance themselves from traditional prayers that asked, as the apostate noted, for the end of the "unrighteous kingdom." Did this mean the surrounding society in which the Jews currently lived? It did. This has always meant to Jews "the whole secular world and its entire political edifice" [KATZ, p. 112], but the Jewish defenders managed to convince their inquirers that the prayers alluded to the ancient powers of Biblical eras.

This formal inquiry evinced a renewed suspicion by the Church towards Jews, as well as an outside steerage of the Judaic faith -- for their own safety -- towards liberalization. "The Paris disputation," says Katz, "marks a transition, from the comparative tolerance of the Catholic Church towards the Jewish faith to the harassing practice of scrutinizing and censuring Jewish customs and tenets. The same event assisted, or even compelled, the Jews to take a further step towards the idea of religious tolerance." [KATZ, p. 113]

In 1806 a second group of Jewish community leaders were forced to again face a formal inquiry into their belief system by the greater society in which they lived. This convening again occurred in France, but this time it was at Napoleon's insistence. The Jewish "Assembly of Notables," and later an even more influential assemblage of Jewish leaders, the Sanhedrin, was presented with twelve written questions, upon whose answers their fate -- as a community -- was understood to rest. With the rise of the European nation states, conflicts between them, and with continued Jewish self-conception as a kind of sub national entity, Napoleon sought to confront the affluent and powerful parts of the Jewish community as to their ultimate political loyalties and allegiances.

Questions included:

* In the eyes of the Jews, are Frenchmen considered as brethren? Or are they considered strangers?

*In either case, what line of conduct does their law prescribe towards Frenchmen not of their religion?

* Do Jews born in France, and treated by the laws as French citizens, consider France as their country? Are they bound to defend it? Are they bound to obey the laws and to conform to the dispositions of the civil courts?

* Can a Jewess marry a Christian, and a Jew a Christian woman? Or does the law allow the Jews to intermarry only among themselves?

* Does Jewish law encourage Jews to practice usury among their own community?

The Jewish notables replied, after extended consultations, with an affirmation of Jewish loyalty to France and the brotherhood of all French citizens, complete with careful, cautioned, diplomatic explanation for all such replies. Napoleon's emissary, Count Mole, 'was struck by what appeared to him to be evasive references: now to Moses, now to the Talmud, now to practical Jewish usage. He was particularly suspicious of the answer on usury ... [but] Napoleon ... declared himself satisfied." [SACHAR, p. 48] The Jewish answers to Napoleon -- the compromises of both orthodox and secularly assimilated Jewish leaders -- are, in retrospect, considered also by historians to have been largely evasive. The gulf between those who represented traditional Jewish teachings and the growing numbers of secularized Jews was great, but both -- traditional and assimilative -- HAD to figure out ways to give Napoleon the answers he wanted. This gulf is reflected in Jacob Katz's view that

"Even learned Jews sincerely maintained that Judaism had
always taught universalistic ethics only. When the 'scientific'
anti-Semites of the 1880's discovered and published the
extracts from ancient Jewish authorities on which earlier anti-
Semitism had been based, the general Jewish public was not
only outraged but genuinely astonished ... Jewish leaders and
scholars reconciled the contemporary views with the ancient
authorities by resorting to apologetics." [KATZ, p. 196]

Robert Goldenberg notes the long tradition of Jewish evasiveness when it comes to explaining the Talmud to non-Jews:

"[In the Middle Ages] Christians too studied the Talmud -- often with
the help of apostate Jews -- and would then quote rabbinic authority
in support of their own claims. Jews thus had to develop a double
attitude toward the nonlegal aspect of the Talmud: when it was useful
to them they cited it to refute the Christians' claims, but when it
weakened their position they felt free to repudiate it." [GOLDENBERG,
R., 1984, p. 164-165]

In our day, Jewish apologists, propagandists, and populists continue to proliferate, reaching back into rabbinical law to recreate a romantic vision of the historical record of Jewish morality towards others. "The fact that the Jews in general," proclaims Nachum Gidal, in a polemic against Christianity, "were very ethical in their religion, family, and daily life was of little significance for the Christian community." [GIDAL, p. 12] "At all times and in all places," claims Meir Tamari, both a Talmudic scholar and the chief economist of the Bank of Israel, "Jews were encouraged, especially in the economic field, to go beyond the letter of the law and to that which was more merciful than required, even though the rabbinical authorities could not naturally enforce such kindness." [TAMARI, p.]

Or, as Jacob Neusner rhapsodizes:

"It is ethical for a Jew to guide the frail old lady across a busy street,
it is also ethical for a Boy Scout to do so. And so being Jewish and
being a Boy Scout functionally are pretty much the same thing."

[NEUSNER, J., 1972, p. 75]




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